The presence of law enforcement officers has steadily increased on K-12 campuses over the last several decades, which has led to higher rates of citations and arrests of students of color in a number of school districts for behaviors previously addressed in school without police. For community organizers and advocates, these arrests and citations are evidence of a shift toward an over-reliance on police to handle school discipline matters.

Research & Resources

Knowledge Center– The Council of State Governments: Breaking Schools’ Rules: A Statewide Study of How School Discipline Relates to Students’ Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement (2011)

The Center For Civil Rights: Charter Schools, Civil Rights and School Discipline ( 2016)

Equal Justice Society, Breaking the Chains (2016)

Better Than Zero: How Alternative Discipline is Replacing Zero Tolerance To Break The School-To-Prison-Pipeline (2015)

THE UCLA Civil Rights Project: Closing The School Discipline Gap in California: Signs of Progress (2015)

American Journal of Sociology: The Social Structure of Criminalized and Medicalized School Discipline (2015)

The Center for Civil Rights Remedies, Are We Closing The School Discipline Gap? (2015)

Gender Non-Conforming Youth: Discipline Disparities, School Push-out and the School-To-Prison-Pipeline (2014)

Padres & Jovenes Unidos and Advancement Project: Lessons in Racial Justice and Movement Building (2014)

American Sociological Review: Suspending Progress: Collateral Consequences of Exclusionary Punishment in Public Schools (2014)

The UCLA Civil Rights Project: Keeping California’s Kids In School (2014)

Padres & Jovenes Unidos and Advancement Project: Lessons in Racial Justice and Movement Building (2014)

Fingerpaint to Fingerprint, The School To Prison Pipeline in Utah (2014)

Veronica Terriquez, Robert Chlala, and Jeff Sacha: The Impact of Punitive High School Discipline Policies on the Postsecondary Trajectories of Young Men (2013)

Suspended Education in California (2012)


The California School Safety Toolkit 

This webinar introduces participants to the research evidence behind effective school safety approaches, reviews information on how the School Safety Toolkit was pilot-tested in California, and walks through the implementation process of the Toolkit itself.

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