Credit: fibonacci blue, flickr

Credit: fibonacci blue, flickr


Research has revealed that Black students receive harsher punishments than white students for the same behavior. Thus, when implementing discipline strategies, it is imperative to mindfully assess the existence and root causes of disproportionate discipline for students of color, as well as proactively use alternative approaches that directly address racial disproportionality.


ACLU & UCLA Civl Rights Project: Daniel J. Losen and Amir Whitaker, 11 Million Days Lost: Race, Discipline, And Safety at U.S. Public Schools (Part 1) (2018)

Daniel J. Losen and Kacy Martin, The Unequal Impact of Suspension on the Opportunity to Learn in CA (2018)

Daniel J. Losen and Amir Whitaker, Lost Instruction: The Disparate Impact of the School Discipline Gap in California (2017)

Education Policy Analysis Archives: Kaitlin P. Anderson and Gary W. Ritter, Disparate Use of Exclusionary Discipline: Evidence on Inequities in School Discipline from a U.S. State (2017)

Constance A. Lindsay and Cassandra M. D. Hart,Teacher Race and School Discipline: Are students suspended less often when they have a teacher of the same race? (2017)

Georgetown Law Center on Poverty and Inequality: Rebecca Epstein, Jamilia J. Blake, Thalia González, Girlhood Interrupted: The Erasure of Black Girls’ Childhood (2017)

Daniel J. Losen, Wei-Ling Sun, Michael A. Keith II, Suspended Education in Massachusetts: Using Days of Lost Instruction Due to Suspension to Evaluate Our Schools (2017)

A Google, Inc. report by Dee, T., & Gershenson, S.,Unconscious Bias in the Classroom: Evidence and Opportunities (2017)

Russell W. Rumberger, Daniel J. Losen, The High Cost Of Harsh Discipline And Its Disparate Impact (2016)

Yale University Child Study Center, Do Early Educators’ Implicit Biases Regarding Sex and Race Relate to Behavior Expectations and Recommendations of Preschool Expulsions and Suspensions? (September 2016).

Daniel Losen, Cheri Hodson, Michael A. Keith II, Katrina Morrison, Shakti Belway, Are We Closing the School Discipline Gap? (2015)

Jason A. Okonofua & Jennifer L.Eberhardt, Two Strikes: Race and the Disciplining of Young StudentsPsychological Science, Vol 26, Issue 5, pp. 617 – 624 (April 2015).

Adriana Villavicencio, Dyuti Bhattacharya, and Brandon Guidry, Moving the Needle Exploring Key Levers to Boost College Readiness Among Black and Latino Males in New York City (2013)

Bettie Ray Butler, Marcus D. Joubert, Chance W. Lewis, Who’s Really Disrupting the Classroom? (2009)


Discipline Disparities: A Research to Practice Collaborative: You Can’t Fix What You Don’t Look At: Acknowledging Race in Addressing Racial Discipline Disparities (December 2014)

Do Early Educators’ Implicit Biases Regarding Sex and Race Relate to Behavior Expectations and Recommendations of Preschool Expulsions and Suspensions?  (Sept. 28, 2016)

Framing the Challenge: Research on Disciplinary Disproportionality and the Need for Equity-Explicit Intervention (EXCERPTS) (2013)

Jyoti Nanda, Blind Discretion: Girls of Color & Delinquency in the Juvenile Justice System (2012)

Journal of African American Males in Education: African American Male Discipline Patterns and School District Responses Resulting Impact on Academic Achievement: Implications for Urban Educators and Policy Makers (February/March 2010)

Journal of Progressive Human Services Critical Multiculturalism, Whiteness, and Social Work: Towards a More Radical View of Cultural Competence (2006)


National Institute of Health: Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in School Discipline among U.S. High School Students: 1991-2005

New Study Reveals Race of Students Triggers Alarming Bias in Teacher Expectations –  (March 30, 2016)

Race and Social Problems: Restructuring Inequity: Interventions to Address Racial/Ethnic Disparities in School Discipline: Can Systems Reform Be Race-Neutral?

Shore Research: Disproportionality in Disciplinary Action in Public Education Literature Review (February 19 2012)

The Urban Review: The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment (December 2002)

Urban Strategies Council: African American Male Achievement Initiative- A closer look at suspensions of African American males in Oakland Unified School District (May 22, 2012)

Key Components to Culturally Responsive Teaching (2015)

Equal Justice Society, Breaking the Chains

Ed Source: Getting to the ‘why’ of school discipline disparities (August 2015)

Educational Researcher: The Achievement Gap and the Discipline Gap: Two sides of the same coin? (2010)

VERA Institute of Justice: BEMORE Concept Paper (2013)

My Brother’s Keeper Task Force Report To The President (2014)




Dismantling Bias: Tools for the Classroom
Participatory Action Research: Understanding your Districts Discipline Data
Institutionalized Racism and Inequity: ‘Turning the Mirror Inward’ In Your District
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