RACIAL BIAS & DISCRIMINATION
Research has revealed that Black students receive harsher punishments than white students for the same behavior. Thus, when implementing discipline strategies, it is imperative to mindfully assess the existence and root causes of disproportionate discipline for students of color, as well as proactively use alternative approaches that directly address racial disproportionality.
Yale University Child Study Center, Do Early Educators’ Implicit Biases Regarding Sex and Race Relate to Behavior Expectations and Recommendations of Preschool Expulsions and Suspensions? (September 2016).
Equal Justice Society, Breaking the Chains: the School to Prison Pipeline, Implicit Bias, and Racial Trauma (September 2016).
Jason A. Okonofua, David Pauneskua & Gregory M. Walton, Brief Intervention to Encourage Empathic Discipline Cuts Suspension Rates in Half Among Adolescents (May 2016).
Jason A. Okonofua & Jennifer L.Eberhardt, Two Strikes: Race and the Disciplining of Young Students, Psychological Science, Vol 26, Issue 5, pp. 617 – 624 (April 2015).
Adriana Villavicencio, Dyuti Bhattacharya, and Brandon Guidry, Moving the Needle Exploring Key Levers to Boost College Readiness Among Black and Latino Males in New York City (2013)
Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education DISPROPORTIONATE IMPACT OF K-12 SCHOOL SUSPENSION AND EXPULSION ON BLACK STUDENTS IN SOUTHERN STATES (2015)
Discipline Disparities: A Research to Practice Collaborative: You Can’t Fix What You Don’t Look At: Acknowledging Race in Addressing Racial Discipline Disparities (December 2014)
Journal of African American Males in Education: African American Male Discipline Patterns and School District Responses Resulting Impact on Academic Achievement: Implications for Urban Educators and Policy Makers (February/March 2010)
Journal of Progressive Human Services Critical Multiculturalism, Whiteness, and Social Work: Towards a More Radical View of Cultural Competence (2006)
National Institute of Health: Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in School Discipline among U.S. High School Students: 1991-2005
Russell J. Skiba, et. al, Race Is Not Neutral: A National Investigation of African American and Latino Disproportionality in School Discipline, School Psychology Review, Volume 40, No. 1, pp. 85–107 (2011).
Shore Research: Disproportionality in Disciplinary Action in Public Education Literature Review (February 19 2012)
The Urban Review: The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment (December 2002)
Urban Strategies Council: African American Male Achievement Initiative- A closer look at suspensions of African American males in Oakland Unified School District (May 22, 2012)
Ed Source: Getting to the ‘why’ of school discipline disparities (August 2015)
Educational Researcher: The Achievement Gap and the Discipline Gap: Two sides of the same coin? (2010)