Credit: fibonacci blue, flickr

Credit: fibonacci blue, flickr


Research has revealed that Black students receive harsher punishments than white students for the same behavior. Thus, when implementing discipline strategies, it is imperative to mindfully assess the existence and root causes of disproportionate discipline for students of color, as well as proactively use alternative approaches that directly address racial disproportionality.


ACLU & UCLA Civl Rights Project: Daniel J. Losen and Amir Whitaker, 11 Million Days Lost: Race, Discipline, And Safety at U.S. Public Schools (Part 1) (2018)

Daniel J. Losen and Kacy Martin, The Unequal Impact of Suspension on the Opportunity to Learn in CA (2018)

Georgetown Law Center on Poverty and Inequality: Rebecca Epstein, Jamilia J. Blake, Thalia González, Girlhood Interrupted: The Erasure of Black Girls’ Childhood (2017)

Daniel J. Losen and Amir Whitaker, Lost Instruction: The Disparate Impact of the School Discipline Gap in California (2017)

Daniel J. Losen, Wei-Ling Sun, Michael A. Keith II, Suspended Education in Massachusetts: Using Days of Lost Instruction Due to Suspension to Evaluate Our Schools (2017)

Education Policy Analysis Archives: Kaitlin P. Anderson and Gary W. Ritter, Disparate Use of Exclusionary Discipline: Evidence on Inequities in School Discipline from a U.S. State (2017)

Constance A. Lindsay and Cassandra M. D. Hart,Teacher Race and School Discipline: Are students suspended less often when they have a teacher of the same race? (2017)

Teacher Race and School Discipline  (2017)

A Google, Inc. report by Dee, T., & Gershenson, S.,Unconscious Bias in the Classroom: Evidence and Opportunities (2017)

Breaking The Chains: School-To-Prison-Pipeline, Implicit Bias and Racial Trauma_(2016)

My Brother’s Keeper: Two Years of Expanding Opportunity and Creating Pathways to Success (2016)

Russell W. Rumberger, Daniel J. Losen, The High Cost Of Harsh Discipline And Its Disparate Impact (2016)

Who Believes In Me: The Effect of Student-Teacher Demographic Match On Teacher Expectations  (2013)

Addressing The Root Causes Of Disparities In School Discipline (2015)

Daniel Losen, Cheri Hodson, Michael A. Keith II, Katrina Morrison, Shakti Belway, Are We Closing the School Discipline Gap? (2015)

Race and Social Problems: Restructuring Inequality (2015)

Jason A. Okonofua & Jennifer L.Eberhardt, Two Strikes: Race and the Disciplining of Young StudentsPsychological Science, Vol 26, Issue 5, pp. 617 – 624 (April 2015).

Discipline Disparities: A Research to Practice Collaborative: You Can’t Fix What You Don’t Look At: Acknowledging Race in Addressing Racial Discipline Disparities (2014)

From The Classroom To The Courtroom: The Adultification of Black Girls (2013)

Adriana Villavicencio, Dyuti Bhattacharya, and Brandon Guidry, Moving the Needle Exploring Key Levers to Boost College Readiness Among Black and Latino Males in New York City (2013)

Disproportionality in Disciplinary Action in Public Education (2012)

African American Male Achievement Initiative: A Closer Look at Suspension in African American Males in OUSD (2012)

African American Male Discipline Patterns (2010)

The Achievement Gap and the Discipline Gap (2010)

Bettie Ray Butler, Marcus D. Joubert, Chance W. Lewis,Who’s Really Disrupting the Classroom? (2009)

Racial, Ethnic and Gender Differences in School Discipline Among U.S. High School Students 1991-2005 (2008)

Critical Multiculturalism, Whiteness, and Social Work: Towards a More Radical View of Cultural Competence (2006)

The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment (2002)




Parent Organizing and Movement Lawyering: Partnership to dismantle Anti-Black Racism in South LA schools

In this session with Occidental College students, Maisie Chin, Executive Director and co-founder of CADRE, and Ruth Cusick, supervising attorney at Public Counsel, share about their long-standing partnership between organizing and movement lawyering to confront Anti-Black Parent Racism in LA schools.

Dismantling Bias: Tools for the Classroom

Participatory Action Research: Understanding your Districts Discipline Data

 ‘Situating Educational Advocacy and Monitoring within a Human Rights Framework

A quality education is a human right all students deserve. The education system’s role serves as a social reproductive process that is both oppressive and liberating for marginalized communities. Centering educational advocacy as a human right is the aim of the FSD coalition.

Institutionalized Racism and Inequity: ‘Turning the Mirror Inward’ In Your District

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