RACIAL BIAS & DISCRIMINATION
Research has revealed that Black students receive harsher punishments than white students for the same behavior. Thus, when implementing discipline strategies, it is imperative to mindfully assess the existence and root causes of disproportionate discipline for students of color, as well as proactively use alternative approaches that directly address racial disproportionality.
ACLU & UCLA Civl Rights Project: Daniel J. Losen and Amir Whitaker, 11 Million Days Lost: Race, Discipline, And Safety at U.S. Public Schools (Part 1) (2018)
Daniel J. Losen and Kacy Martin, The Unequal Impact of Suspension on the Opportunity to Learn in CA (2018)
Georgetown Law Center on Poverty and Inequality: Rebecca Epstein, Jamilia J. Blake, Thalia González, Girlhood Interrupted: The Erasure of Black Girls’ Childhood (2017)
Daniel J. Losen and Amir Whitaker, Lost Instruction: The Disparate Impact of the School Discipline Gap in California (2017)
Daniel J. Losen, Wei-Ling Sun, Michael A. Keith II, Suspended Education in Massachusetts: Using Days of Lost Instruction Due to Suspension to Evaluate Our Schools (2017)
Education Policy Analysis Archives: Kaitlin P. Anderson and Gary W. Ritter, Disparate Use of Exclusionary Discipline: Evidence on Inequities in School Discipline from a U.S. State (2017)
Constance A. Lindsay and Cassandra M. D. Hart,Teacher Race and School Discipline: Are students suspended less often when they have a teacher of the same race? (2017)
A Google, Inc. report by Dee, T., & Gershenson, S.,Unconscious Bias in the Classroom: Evidence and Opportunities (2017)
Russell W. Rumberger, Daniel J. Losen, The High Cost Of Harsh Discipline And Its Disparate Impact (2016)
Daniel Losen, Cheri Hodson, Michael A. Keith II, Katrina Morrison, Shakti Belway, Are We Closing the School Discipline Gap? (2015)
Jason A. Okonofua & Jennifer L.Eberhardt, Two Strikes: Race and the Disciplining of Young Students, Psychological Science, Vol 26, Issue 5, pp. 617 – 624 (April 2015).
Adriana Villavicencio, Dyuti Bhattacharya, and Brandon Guidry, Moving the Needle Exploring Key Levers to Boost College Readiness Among Black and Latino Males in New York City (2013)
Bettie Ray Butler, Marcus D. Joubert, Chance W. Lewis,Who’s Really Disrupting the Classroom? (2009)