The presence of law enforcement officers has steadily increased on K-12 campuses over the last several decades, which has led to higher rates of citations and arrests of students of color in a number of school districts for behaviors previously addressed in school without police. For community organizers and advocates, these arrests and citations are evidence of a shift toward an over-reliance on police to handle school discipline matters.

Research & Resources

ACLU: Cops and No Counselors: How the Lack of School Mental Health Staff Is Harming Students (2019)

The Center for Civil Rights Remedies: The Funnel Effect: 12 Ways Suspension Push Students Through The School-To-Prison-Pipeline

Labor/Community Travel Center: Black, Brown, and Over-Policed in L.A. Schools: Structural Proposals to End the School-to-Prison Pipeline in the Los Angeles Unified School District and to Build a National Movement to Stop the Mass Incarceration of Black and Latino Communities  (2013

The Advancement Project Restorative Justice Now: A Community Review of Alexandria City Public Schools’ Implementation of Restorative Justice  (2016)

PJU: Denver Community Accountability Report Card (2016)

American Institutes for Research and Public Counsel: California School Safety Toolkit (January 2017)

The Advancement Project: How We Are Dismantling the School-To-Prison-Pipeline in Denver (September 15, 2014)

Education and Treatment of Children: Evaluation of a Comprehensive Behavior Management Program To Improve School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (2001)

Education and Treatment of Children: Translating Research into Effective Practice: The Effects of a Universal Staff and Student Intervention on Indicators of Discipline and School Safety (2001)

Educational Psychology: Whole-School Positive Behaviour Support: Effects on student discipline problems and academic performance (2005)

Effectiveness of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports in Reducing Racially Inequitable Disciplinary Exclusion

Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: A Randomized, Wait-List Controlled Effectiveness Trial Assessing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Elementary Schools (2009)

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The California School Safety Toolkit 

This webinar introduces participants to the research evidence behind effective school safety approaches, reviews information on how the School Safety Toolkit was pilot-tested in California, and walks through the implementation process of the Toolkit itself.

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